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Xylocopa virginica virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)

Xylocopa virginica Drury. - Viereck, 1906 (distribution); Michener, 1947 (distribution).
Apis virginica Linnaeus, 1771:450, sex not indicated. [Ackerman, 1916:216 location unknown to writer]. - - As Bombus virginicus: Smith, 1854 (distribution); Cresson, 1863 (distribution); Handlirsch, 1888 (distribution); Cockerell, 1899 (distribution). - As Xylocopa virginica: Cresson, 1872 (distribution); Smith, 1874 (distribution); Burmeister, 1876 (distribution); Dalla Torre, 1896 (distribution); Friese, 1902 (distribution); Ackerman, 1916 (distribution); Hurd, 1955 (distribution); Owens et al., 2018 (distribution). - As Xylocopa virginica virginica: Hurd, 1955 (distribution); Hurd, 1961 (distribution); Mitchell, 1962 (distribution); Krombein et al., 1979 (distribution); Pascarella, 2006 (distribution); Hall & Ascher, 2010 (distribution); Hall & Ascher, 2011 (distribution).
Apis analis Fabricius, 1775:384, descr. no. [America (leg. Drury)]. - Krombein et al., 1979:2186 (listed as synonym of Xylocopa virginica virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)).
Apis virginicus sensu Olivier, 1789. - Lutz & Cockerell, 1920:520 (listed as synonym of Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863). - As Apis virginica: Mitchell, 1962:527 (listed as synonym of Bombus griseocollis (Degeer, 1773)). - As Bombus virginicus: Cresson, 1863 (distribution); Cresson, 1872 (distribution); Lutz & Cockerell, 1920 (distribution).
Centris carolina Fabricius, 1804:357, sex not indicated. [Carolina (Coll. Mus. Dom. Bose)]. - Cresson, 1872:283 (listed as synonym of Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)); Smith, 1874:295 (listed as synonym of Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)); Mitchell, 1962:510 (listed as synonym of Xylocopa virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)); Krombein et al., 1979:2186 (listed as synonym of Xylocopa virginica virginica (Linnaeus, 1771)). - As Xylocopa carolina: Say, 1837 (distribution); Smith, 1854 (distribution).
Bombus virginicus Fabricius, 1804 = Linnaeus:346. - Dalla Torre, 1896 (distribution); Lutz & Cockerell, 1920:520 (listed as synonym of Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863).

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Literature

  • Ackerman, A.J. (1916) The Carpenter-Bees of the United States of the genus Xylocopa. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 24 (3): 196-232.
  • Burmeister, H. (1876) Die Xylocopa-Arten des La Plata-Gebietes. Stettin. Ent. Zeitung 37: 152-183.
  • Cockerell, T.D.A. (1899) The bees of Kansas. Entomological News 10: 3-4.
  • Cresson, E.T. (1863) List of North American species of Bombus and Apathus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2: 83-116.
  • Cresson, E.T. (1863) A communication on some Bombus with description of a new species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia 2 (3): 164-166.
  • Cresson, E.T. (1872) Hymenoptera Texana. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 4: 153-292.
  • Dalla Torre, C.G. (1896) Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus, X. Apidae (Anthophila). 1-643, Sumptibus Guilelmi Engelmann.
  • Fabricius, J.C. (1775) Systema Entomologiae sistens Insectorum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus. 28+832 pp, Korte, Flensburgi et Lipsiae.
  • Fabricius, J.C. (1804) Systema Piezatorum secundum Ordines, Genera, Species adiectis Synonymis, Locis, Observationibus, Descriptionibus. xiv + 440 + 30 pp, Apud Carolum Reichard, Brunsvigae.
  • Friese, H. (1902) Beitrag zur Apidenfauna der grossen Antillen. Zeitschrift für systematische Hymenopterologie und Dipterologie 1-2: 196-201.
  • Hall, H.G., & J.S. Ascher (2010) Surveys of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in natural areas of Alachua County in North-Central Florida. Florida Entomologist 93 (4): 609-629.
  • Hall, H.G., & J.S. Ascher (2011) Surveys of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in organic farms of Alachua County in north-central Florida. Florida Entomologist 94 (3): 539-552.
  • Handlirsch, A. (1888) Die Hummelsammlung des k. k. naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. Annal. K.K. naturhist. Hofmuseums Wien 3: 209-250.
  • Hurd, P.D. Jr. (1955) The carpenter bees of California (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Bulletin of the California insect survey 4 (2): 35-72.
  • Hurd, P.D. Jr. (1961) A synopsis of the carpenter bees belonging to the subgenus Xylocopoides Michener (Hymenoptera; Apoidea). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 87 (4): 247-257.
  • Krombein, K.V., P.D. Hurd, D.R. Smith & B.D. Burks (1979) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). 1199-2209, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C..
  • Linnaeus, C. (1771) . Mant. Plant. 2: -450-.
  • Lutz, F.E. & T.D.A. Cockerell (1920) Notes on the distribution and bibliography of North American bees of the families, Apidae, Meliponidae, Bombidae, Euglossidae, and Anthophoridae. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist 42 (15): 491-641.
  • Michener, C.D. (1947) Bees of a limited area in southern Mississippi (Hymenoptera; Apoidea). The American Midland Naturalist 38 (2): 443-455.
  • Mitchell, T.B. (1962) Bees of the Eastern United States. Volume II. Technical bulletin (North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station) 152: 1-557.
  • Owens, B.E., L. Allain, E.C. van Gorder, J.L. Bossart & C.E. Carlton (2018) The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Louisiana: An updated, annotated checklist. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 120 (2): 272-307.
  • Pascarella, J.B. (2006) The bees of Florida. .
  • Say, T. (1837) Descriptions of new species of North American Hymenoptera, and observations on some already described [Concluded from p. 305]. Boston Journal of Natural History 1 (4): 361-416.
  • Smith, F. (1854) Catalogue of Hymenopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum. Part II. Apidae. 465 pp, 8 pl, London.
  • Smith, F. (1874) Monograph of the genus Xylocopa, Latr.. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London : 247-302.
  • Viereck, H.L. (1906) Notes and descriptions of Hymenoptera from the western United States. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 32 (2): 173-247.